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An Applied Approach to Film Formation The Glass Transition Temperature Evolution of Plasticized Latex Films

SpecialChem / Apr 10, 2003

In coatings science the understanding and modeling of film formation are paramount to the rapid optimization of waterborne formulations. This proves especially true in the design of coatings with targeted properties that meet required VOCs. In 1946 when Dow Chemical Co. first introduced latexes to the coatings market, there was an immediate need for understanding film formation from waterborne polymeric particles.1 Initial theories of film formation focused on particle deformation. In the dry-sintering theory proposed by Bradford and coworkers,2 the major contribution that drives particle deformation to a fully dense film arises from the surface tension of the polymer.3 According to Brown,4 particle deformation resulted from the capillary forces, which develop at the surface of a drying latex. These forces were estimated as being proportional to the water-air interfacial tension and inversely proportional to latex particle size. Vanderhoff proposed that water interfacial tension provided the force necessary for particle compression and densification.5 Sheetz suggested that the evaporation of water from latex films resulted in stresses that compressed the particles.6

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