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Wax Emulsions for Coatings

Wax-based additives and wax emulsions are widely used for optimizing the final performance of coatings and inks by efficiently controlling surface properties. A solid understanding of waxes and how they work will allow you to use these performance additives to your greatest advantage. Even with careful selection of the appropriate wax surface modifier, your results will depend on the manufactured quality of the emulsion or dispersion.

Learn more about waxes and wax emulsions & understand how you can improve specific surface effect using wax emulsions. Find out key factors to be considered to formulate wax emulsions, their mechanism of action, and their benefits to improve surface defects & what are the main application areas.

Wax Types and Properties

Wax is a generic term that encompasses materials that have some specific properties such as:

  • Solid at 20°C, varying from soft / plastic to brittle / hard
  • A mp > 40°C without decomposing
  • A relatively low viscosity slightly above the melting point
  • Transparency to opaque, but not glass-like
  • Buffable under slight pressure

This includes:

  • Natural products based on C16 - C 36 Fatty Acids or
  • Some synthetic polymers with Mw from 700 to 10.000

Waxes are often classified according to their origin as illustrated in the table below:

Naturally Occurring Waxes Synthetic
Waxes
Animal Vegetable Mineral
Beeswax Carnauba Montan PP, PE & PTFE
Lanolin Candellila Paraffin Fischer-Tropsch
Lanocerin Jojoba Microcrytalline Fatty Acid Amine
Shellac Ouricourl Intermediate PTFE
Ozokerite Polyamide

Where:

PP = polypropylene
PE = polyethylene
HDPE = High Density Polyethylene
PTFE = Polytetrafluoroethylene

Table below summarizes the main wax properties and corresponding effects imparted or improved in paint, coating and ink formulations.

Type Properties Main Performances
Carnauba
  • High melting naturally occuring wax
  • Different grades (T1, T2, T3)
  • Hard & brittles
  • Excellent clarity
  • Generally Recognised As Save

  • Slip & Lubricity
  • Anti-Blocking
  • Mar Resistance

Paraffin
  • Various grades, hence properties depending on refinement degree
  • Hard to oily feeling
  • Mainly composed of straight alkane chains, hence some parafffin's have good crystalline structure, giving excellent barrier effects against water repellency
  • Very low polarity
  • Anti-Blocking
  • Water Repellency
  • Slip & Lubricity

PE
  • Obtained by polymerization of Ethylene monomers
  • Various grades, hence properties depending on Mw and polymerisation process
  • Two main families: LDPE and HDPE (Low and High Density PE) whose difference is the extend and type of branching
  • LDPE's display more thoughness, better scuff / mar resistance and are more flexible
  • HDPE's contribute to better slip properties and abrasion resistance
  • Slip
  • Abrasion Resistance
  • Anti-Blocking
PP
  • Obtained by polymerization of propylene monomers
  • Good film toughness but poor slip & lubricity properties
  • Not really a wax but often classify as such because of impact to surface properties
  • Anti-Slip
  • Anti-Blocking
  • Abrasion Resistance
PTFE
  • Obtained by polymerization of C2F4 monomers
  • High melting point and outstanding heat resistance properties (up to 600°F)
  • Give the lowest known CoF, hence excellent slip & lubricity, anti-blocking and abrasion resistance
  • Chemically inert
  • Not really a wax but often classify as such because of impact to surface properties
  • Slip & Lubricity
  • Anti-Blocking
  • Abrasion Resistance

RAVEN 5100 ULTRA by Birla Carbon
OPC Polymers
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